Mining hardware comparison - Bitcoin Wiki

ProgPoW resources

Informational

May 2, 2018 EIPs/eip-1057.md at master · ethereum/EIPs · GitHub
May 3, 2018 ProgPOW/README.md at master · ifdefelse/ProgPOW · GitHub
May 3, 2018 EIP-ProgPoW: a Programmatic Proof-of-Work - EIPs - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
May 29, 2018 The Problem with Proof of Work - K. L. Minehan - Medium
October 25, 2018 Understanding ProgPoW - IfDefElse - Medium
Nov 17, 2018 progpow-wiki/ProgPoW.md at master · MariusVanDerWijden/progpow-wiki · GitHub
December 10, 2018 ProgPoW - A Programmatic Proof of Work by Kristy-Leigh Minehan (Devcon4) - YouTube
January 10, 2019 ProgPoW FAQ - IfDefElse - Medium
January 14, 2019 What GPU miners may not know about ProgPoW - Andrea Lanfranchi - Medium
January 17, 2019 ProgPoW: Progress Update #1 - IfDefElse - Medium
February 14, 2019 Council of Denver - HackMD
February 17, 2019 The Miners Benchmark ProgPoW - Theodor Ghannam - Medium
February 21, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW Explained - Crypto Mining Blog
March 18, 2019 13 Questions about Ethereum’s Movement to ProgPow by Jon Stevens - Medium
March 20, 2019 Skeptical about #ProgPoW? I am too! - Bryant Eisenbach - Medium
March 27, 2019 Comprehensive ProgPoW Benchmark by Theodor Ghannam - Medium
March 28, 2019 My stance on Progpow by Martin Holst Swende
March 30, 2019 The Cost of ASIC Design - IfDefElse - Medium
April 12, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW Update - Crypto Mining Blog
September 23, 2019 In Defense of ProgPow : ethereum
February 4, 2020 Antminer E3 Stops Mining Ethereum Classic, Just Over a Month Remaining for Ethereum - Crypto Mining Blog

Ethereum Magicians

August 2, 2108 Final Request From the GPU Mining Community - EIPs - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
August 26, 2018 EIP-1355: Ethash 1a - EIPs - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
September 3, 2108 What has to be done to get ProgPoW on Ethereum - EIPs - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
January 1, 2019 Guidelines for ProgPow Hardware Developers - Primordial Soup - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
February 2, 2019 On the progpow audit - Action Item - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
March 3, 2019 My technical take on ProgPow’s weakest link - EIPs - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
March 4, 2019 Governance concerns after listening to ~all ProgPow discussions on Core Dev calls - Process Improvement - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
March 29, 2019 Motion to NOT include ProgPow without audit - EIPs - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
March 30, 2109 ProgPoW - A Compilation of Reference Material - Core EIPs - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
May 23, 2019 ProgPoW Audit Delay Issue - EIPs - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
July 8, 2019 Ensuring ETH 1.x’s Success Without Disenfranchising The Community - Ethereum 1.x Ring - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians
August 8, 2019 EIP-centric forking - Process Improvement - Fellowship of Ethereum Magicians

YouTube

October 8, 2018 Cardano Rust Project | Petro Public Sale | ProgPow | WSJ Attacks Shapeshift (October 2nd, 2018) - YouTube
October 23 2018 Ethereum Mining News | FPGA’s Mining | ProgPoW LIKELY | Profitability | Hard Fork Delayed 2019 - YouTube
December 13, 2018 Why ProgPoW is BAD for Ethereum - YouTube
December 19, 2018 Bitcoin Rallies Towards 4k - Why? Ethereum Launches ProgPoW GPU Mining Testnet | New HD Minable Coin - YouTube
January 4, 2019 Ethereum moving to PROGPOW! What’s it mean for Miners? - YouTube
January 4, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW CONFIRMED! - YouTube
January 5, 2019 Mining on the ProgPoW Gangnam Ethereum Testnet! - YouTube
January 6, 2019 6 x Asus RX 570 4GB ProgPoW Gangnam Ethereum Testnet TEST! - YouTube
January 7, 2019 ProgPOW Explained - A Brave New World for Ethereum Miners? - YouTube
January 20, 2019 CES2019 - North American Bitcoin Conference - GRIN / BEAM - PROGPOW and more! - YouTube
January 23, 2019 Ethereum to ZERO? Eth Chain Split. ProgPow & ETC 51 % Attack. GPU vs ASIC Miners. - YouTube
January 29, 2019 Nick Johnson: Future of the Ethereum Name Service and thoughts on ProgPOW - YouTube
February 19, 2019 Ethereum Hard Fork Soon? ProgPoW Voting? - YouTube
February 20, 2019 ProgPoW Merged Into Parity Ethereum | ETHNews Brief - YouTube
February 25, 2019 How does R7 370, R9 380,380x,390 and more perform on PROGPOW and other Cryptocurrencies in 2019? - YouTube
March 7, 2019 PROGPOW Explained in under 4 min. & why it matters to GPU Miners - YouTube
March 19, 2019 What is BBT doing with PROGPOW, Why all of the testing? - YouTube
March 25, 2019 eVGA RTX 2080Ti FTW3 11GB DDR6 Cryptocurrency Performance Test PROGPOW ETH RVN BEAM GRIN29 GRIN31 - YouTube
March 29, 2019 Ethereum & ProgPoW… What Is Going On? - YouTube
May 2, 2019 Ethereum ProgPow Audit Has Been Funded & Approved - YouTube
July 5, 2019 Mining News! Monero RandomX | Ethereum ProgPoW 2019 Update | Grin Embraces ASIC miners | Zel Zelhash - YouTube
July 24, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW AUDIT Is Finally Getting Started… - YouTube
September 13, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW Algorithm Audits Finalized - YouTube
September 24, 2019 An Argument Against ProgPoW a Day - Part 1 - YouTube
October 4, 2019 82 - Defending ProgPoW with Kristy-Leigh Minehan - YouTube
October 10, 2019 #36 - Kristy-Leigh of ProgPow discusses the EIP, Satoshi, Code Contributions, and Crypto Mining 2020 - YouTube
November 24, 2019 Ethereum Classic REJECTS ProgPoW… - YouTube
December 16, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW Implementation Is STILL Coming Right? - YouTube
December 26, 2019 Panel: Least Authority’s ProgPoW Audit (Devcon5) - YouTube

Podcasts

April 11, 2019 https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/blockchannel/id1307284590?i=1000434669782
September 10, 2019 https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/ethhub-weekly-recap-78-ethboston-compound-drama-eth2/id1443920565?i=1000449269536
September 25, 2019 https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/ethhub-weekly-recap-80-progpow-discussion-doj-extortion/id1443920565?i=1000451214746
October 4, 2019 https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/82-defending-progpow-with-kristy-leigh-minehan/id1436674724?i=1000452312677

Official Updates

May 18, 2019 Dev Call #38 - May 18, 2018
August 24, 2018 Dev Call #45 - August 24, 2018
September 28, 2018 Dev Call #47 - September 28, 2018
January 4, 2019 Dev Call #52 - January 4, 2019
January 18, 2019 Dev Call#53 - January 18, 2019
February 1, 2019 Dev Call #54 - February 1, 2019
February 11, 2019 Ethereum Cat Herders Update#1 : EthereumCatHerders
March 15, 2019 Dev Call #57 - March 15, 2019
May 24, 2019 Dev Call #62 - May 24, 2019
July 18, 2019 Dev Call #65 - July 18, 2019
September 10, 2019 ProgPoW Audits Released - Ethereum Cat Herders - Medium
September 6, 2019 Dev Call #70 - September 6, 2019
November 1, 2019 Dev Call #74 - November 1, 2019
December 13, 2019 Dev Call #77 - December 13, 2019
January 24, 2019 Dev Call #79 - January 24, 2020
February 21, 2020 Dev Call#81 - February 21, 2020

News Articles

January 4, 2019 Ethereum Core Devs to Move Forward With ASIC-Resistant PoW Algorithm
January 5, 2019 Ethereum (ETH) Developers Plan to Implement ASIC-Resistant Proof of Work Mining Algorithm
January 7, 2019 BREAKING: Ethereum Classic (ETC) Hit With 51 Percent Attack A Week Before Ethereum (ETH) Constantinople Hard Fork – Crypto.IQ | Bitcoin and Investment News from Inside Experts You Can Trust
January 8, 2019 ETH Dev Suggests Moving to ‘ASIC-Friendly Algorithm’ After ProgPoW Decision
January 8, 2019 Ethereum Miner Linzhi Calls Out Project Coders for Proposed ASIC Ban - CoinDesk
January 8, 2019 Ethereum (ETH) Core Developers Propose an ASIC Resistant Upgrade - Ethereum World News
January 9, 2019 Ethereum Classic (ETC) 51% attack proof that shitcoins have no hope of succeeding? | CaptainAltcoin
January 9, 2019 What’s ProgPoW? Meet the hot new debate in the Ethereum community | finder.com.au
January 18, 2019 Ethereum Core Devs Constantinople Meeting to Be Held on Jan 18
February 1, 2019 Ethereum Core Dev Call #54: Waiting for ProgPoW - The Block
February 3, 2019 Will Ethereum Adopt ‘ProgPoW,’ the ASIC-Resistant Mining Algorithm? | CryptoSlate
February 4, 2019 Is Ethereum Going to be Adopting ASIC-Resistant ‘ProgPow’ as a Mining Algorithm?
February 15, 2019 Ethereum Core Dev Call #55: ProgPoW audits and Vitalik’s Phase 2 updates - The Block
February 15, 2019 Recompensas por minería en Ethereum llegan a mínimo histórico | CriptoNoticias
February 28, 2019 Coinhive dice adiós a la minería web por caída del mercado | CriptoNoticias
March 6, 2019 Ethereum Core Dev Meeting : ProgPow Implementation Receives More Than 50 Percent Votes from Miners - CryptoNewsZ
March 7, 2019 The ASIC Resistant Mining Campaign from Ethereum Miners Is Just Getting Started
March 12, 2019 Ethereum’s ProgPoW Proposal: An Expensive Game of Whack-a-Mole - CoinDesk
March 12, 2019 Ethereum’s ProgPoW Mining Change to Be Considered for Istanbul Upgrade - CoinDesk
March 14, 2019 As ProgPoW Aimed at Stopping ASIC Mining Gets Supporting Votes, New Conspiracies and Debates Appear
March 15, 2019 Ethereum’s ProgPow Mining Change Approved Again, But Timeline Unclear - CoinDesk
March 17, 2019 Ethereum Devs Once Again Approve ASIC-Resistant Algorithm ProgPoW
March 18, 2019 Ethereum (ETH) to Be ASIC-Resistant, No Date Set However - Cryptovest
March 27, 2019 Aumentan desacuerdos en Ethereum por decisión de avanzar con ProgPoW | CriptoNoticias
March 29, 2019 Bitmain Co-founder, Jihan Wu: ASIC Miners Makes a Blockchain Network More Decentralized - Coindoo
April 8, 2019 A Fight Over Specialized Chips Threatens an Ethereum Split | WIRED
April 26, 2019 Funding Approved for Audit of Ethereum’s ProgPoW Mining Proposal - CoinDesk
April 28, 2019 Ethereum Core Devs: Funding for ProgPoW 3rd-Party Audit Approved
April 20, 2019 Ethereum’s Recent Decline in Hashrate ‘Not Surprising’: Cyber Threat Expert Explains | CryptoGlobe
June 14, 2019 Proposed Ethereum Istanbul Hard Fork Combed With A Fine Tooth at Cat Herders Meeting
July 13, 2019 ¿Qué es ProgPoW? La propuesta de algoritmo contra mineros ASIC en Ethereum | CriptoNoticias
August 17, 2019 Ethereum: ProgPow will be activated on the mainnet next year as a part of Istanbul 2 - AMBCrypto
August 18, 2019 Ethereum’s ProgPoW To Be Released The First Quarter Of 2020 | UseTheBitcoin
August 19, 2019 Ethereum to Switch to ProgPoW Mining Algorithm in Upcoming Istanbul Hard Fork
September 8, 2019 Ethereum: ProgPoW high level design goals are reasonable towards achieving its intended economic effect - AMBCrypto
September 11, 2019 Chinese Firm Linzhi Set To Mass Produce Ethereum and ETC ASIC Miners As Tests Go Live
September 18, 2019 Ethereum ProgPOW author uninvited from ETC Summit due to Craig Wright association | CryptoSlate
September 19, 2019 Ethereum reveals launch dates for testing Istanbul - Decrypt
September 19, 2019 Hashing Out: ProgPoW Debate Kicks Up in Ethereum Community Again
September 19, 2019 ETC Summit Invitees List Has No Space for Kristy Minehan
September 22, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW upgrade causing chain split more likely to be from the user side instead of the miner side - AMBCrypto
September 23, 2019 ProgPow advocate uninvited to Ethereum Classic Summit over links to Craig Wright
September 24, 2019 ProgPoW backer steps down from controversial role - Decrypt
September 25, 2019 ProgPOW author steps down as Core Scientific CTO, vows to implement algorithm on Ethereum | CryptoSlate
September 25, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW proponent Kristy-Leigh Minehan steps down citing perceived conflict of interest - AMBCrypto
September 25, 2019 Core Scientific CTO Steps Down To Push Through Ethereum ProgPOW
September 25, 2019 ProgPoW author Kristy-Leigh Minehan resigns as CTO of Core Scientific | Cryptopolitan
September 26, 2019 New Ethereum ASIC dominates GPU mining performance | CryptoSlate
September 26, 2019 New Ethereum ASIC Fuels Discord Among Ethereum Community
September 28, 2019 The (alleged) plot against the Ethereum network - Decrypt
October 9, 2019 ProgPoW, the Algorithm Dividing the Ethereum Community: a GPU Manufacturer Ploy? - Ethereum World News
October 9, 2019 Ethereum Hard Fork Is Coming — Here’s What You Need to Know About ‘Istanbul’ – BeInCrypto October 27, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW’s raison d’etre: To be or not to be - AMBCrypto
November 4, 2019 Aragon Opposes Change to Ethereum’s Mining Algorithm Before 2.0 Version
November 7, 2019 Aragon community against Ethereum ProgPOW
November 8, 2019 Ethereum Istanbul Hard Fork Release Date Confirmed By Core Developer
November 16, 2019 Ethereum ProgPoW audit contributors on Gitcoin to be refunded in full - AMBCrypto
November 26, 2019 Ethereum’s Buterin: PoW algorithms offering medium-level ASIC resistance can be created - AMBCrypto
December 17, 2019 Ethereum devs move ProgPoW into ‘Eligible for Inclusion’ list - AMBCrypto
January 1, 2020 [Is the ASIC Resistance dream closer to reality, despite claims of it being a myth? - AMBCrypto](https://eng.ambcrypto.com/is-the-asic-resistance-dream-closer-to-reality-despite-claims-of-it-being-a-myth/
submitted by greerso to ethereum [link] [comments]

Vertcoin Mining AMA

What is Vertcoin?

Vertcoin was created in 2014. It is a direct hedge against long term mining consensus centralization on the Bitcoin mining network. Vertcoin achieves its mining consensus solely through Graphics Cards as they are the most abundant / widely available consensus devices that produce a reasonable amount of hashrate. This is done using a mining algorithm that deliberately geared against devices like ASICs, FPGAs and CPUs (due to botnets) making them extremely inefficient. Consensus distribution over time is the most important aspect of a blockchain and should not be taken lightly. It is critical that you understand what blockchain specifications mean/do to fully understand Vertcoin.

Mining Vertcoin

When users of our network send each other Vertcoin, their transactions are secured by a process called mining. Miners will compose a so-called block out of the pending transactions, and need to perform a large number of computations called hashes in order to produce the Proof-of-Work. With this Proof-of-Work, the block is accepted by the network and the transactions in it become confirmed.
Mining is essentially a race. Whoever finds a valid Proof-of-Work and gets the block propagated over more than half of the Vertcoin network first, wins this race and is allowed to reward themselves with the block reward. The block reward is how new Vertcoin come in circulation. This block reward started at 50 VTC when Vertcoin was launched, and halves every four years. The current block reward is 25 VTC.
Vertcoin's One Click Miner: https://github.com/vertcoin-project/One-Click-Minereleases
Learn more about mining here: https://vertcoin.org/mine/
Specification List:
· Launch date: Jan 11, 2014
· Proof-Of-Work (Consensus Mechanism)
· Total Supply: 84,000,000 Vertcoin
· Preferred Consensus Device: GPU
· Mining Algorithm: Lyra2REv3 (Made by Vertcoin)
· Blocktime: 2.5 minutes
· SegWit: Activated
· Difficulty Adjustment Algorithm: Kimoto Gravity Well (Every Block)
· Block Halving: 4 year interval
· Initial Block Reward: 50 coins
· Current Block Reward: 25 coin
More spec information can be found here: https://vertcoin.org/specs-explained/

Why Does Vertcoin Use GPUs Then?

ASIC’s (Manufactuer Monopoly)
If mining were just a spade sure, use the most powerful equipment which would be an ASIC. The problem is ASICs are not widely available, and just happen to be controlled by a monopoly in China.
So, you want the most widely available tool that produces a fair amount of hashrate, which currently manifests itself as a Graphics Card.
CPUs would be great too but unfortunately there are viruses that take over hundreds of thousands of computers called Botnets (they’re almost as bad as ASICs).

Mining In Pools

Because mining is a race, it’s difficult for an individual miner to acquire enough computational power to win this race solo. Therefore there’s a concept called pool-mining. With pool-mining, miners cooperate in finding the correct Proof-of-Work for the block, and share the block reward based on the work contributed. The amount of work contributed is measured in so-called shares. Finding the Proof-of-Work for a share is much easier than finding it for a block, and when the cooperating miners find the Proof-of-Work for the block, they distribute the reward based on the number of shares each miner found. Vertcoin always recommends using P2Pool to keep mining as decentralized as possible.
How Do I Get Started?
If you want to get started mining, check out the Mine Vertcoin page.

Vertcoin just forked to Lyra2REv3 and we are currently working on Verthash

Verthash is and was under development before we decided to hard fork to Lyra2REv3. While Verthash would’ve resulted in the same effect for ASICs (making them useless for mining Vertcoin), the timeline was incompatible with the desire to get rid of ASICs quickly. Verthash is still under development and tries to address the outsourcability problem.
Verthash is an I/O bound algorithm that uses the blockchain data as input to the hashing algorithm. It therefore requires miners to have all the blockchain data available to them, which is currently about 4 GB of data. By making this mining data mandatory, it will become harder for auto profit switching miners — like the ones that rent out their GPU to Nicehash — because they will need to keep a full node running while mining other algorithms for the moment Verthash becomes more profitable — the data needs to be available immediately since updating it can take a while.
Over the past month, we have successfully developed a first implementation of Verthash in the Vertcoin Core code base. Within the development team we have run a few nodes on Testnet to test the functionality — and everything seems to work properly. The next step is to build out the GPU miners for AMD and Nvidia. This is a NOETA at the moment, since we’re waiting on GPU developers which are in high demand. Once the miners are ready, we’ll be releasing the Vertcoin 0.15 beta that hardforks the testnet together with the miners for the community to have a testrun. Given the structural difference between Lyra2RE and Verthash, we’ll have to run the testnet for a longer period than we did with the Lyra2REv3 hard fork. We’ll have to make sure the system is reliable before hardforking our mainnet. So the timeline will be longer than with the Lyra2REv3 hard fork.
Some people in the community have voiced concerns about the fact that Verthash development is not being done “out in the open”, i.e.: the code commits are not visible on Github. The main two reasons for us to keep our cards to our chest at this stage are: (1) only when the entire system including miners has been coded up can we be sure the system works, we don’t want to release preliminary stuff that doesn’t work or isn’t secure. Also (2) we don’t want to give hardware manufacturers or mining outsourcing platforms a head start on trying to defeat the mechanisms we’ve put in place.

Links and Resources

· Twitter: https://twitter.com/Vertcoin
· Donations: vertcoin.org/donate
· Join our Discord: https://discord.gg/vertcoin
· Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/vertcoin/
· Official Website: https://vertcoin.org/
· Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/vertcoin
· Vertcoin Talk: https://soundcloud.com/vertcoin-talk
· Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/vertcoin
submitted by Canen01 to gpumining [link] [comments]

Best $100-$300 FPGA development board in 2018?

Hello, I’ve been trying to decide on a FPGA development board, and have only been able to find posts and Reddit threads from 4-5 years ago. So I wanted to start a new thread and ask about the best “mid-range” FGPA development board in 2018. (Price range $100-$300.)
I started with this Quora answer about FPGA boards, from 2013. The Altera DE1 sounded good. Then I looked through the Terasic DE boards.
Then I found this Reddit thread from 2014, asking about the DE1-SoC vs the Cyclone V GX Starter Kit: https://www.reddit.com/FPGA/comments/1xsk6w/cyclone_v_gx_starter_kit_vs_de1soc_board/‬ (I was also leaning towards the DE1-SoC.)
Anyway, I thought I better ask here, because there are probably some new things to be aware of in 2018.
I’m completely new to FPGAs and VHDL, but I have experience with electronics/microcontrollers/programming. My goal is to start with some basic soft-core processors. I want to get some C / Rust programs compiling and running on my own CPU designs. I also want to play around with different instruction sets, and maybe start experimenting with asynchronous circuits (e.g. clock-less CPUs)
Also I don’t know if this is possible, but I’d like to experiment with ternary computing, or work with analog signals instead of purely digital logic. EDIT: I just realized that you would call those FPAAs, i.e. “analog” instead of “gate”. Would be cool if there was a dev board that also had an FPAA, but no problem if not.
EDIT 2: I also realized why "analog signals on an FPGA" doesn't make any sense, because of how LUTs work. They emulate boolean logic with a lookup table, and the table can only store 0s and 1s. So there's no way to emulate a transistor in an intermediate state. I'll just have play around with some transistors on a breadboard.
UPDATE: I've put together a table with some of the best options:
Board Maker Chip LUTs Price SoC? Features
icoBoard Lattice iCE40-HX8K 7,680 $100 Sort of A very simple FPGA development board that plugs into a Raspberry Pi, so you have a "backup" hard-core CPU that can control networking, etc. Supports a huge range of pmod accessories. You can write a program/circuit so that the Raspberry Pi CPU and the FPGA work together, similar to a SoC. Proprietary bitstream is fully reverse engineered and supported by Project IceStorm, and there is an open-source toolchain that can compile your hardware design to bitstream. Has everything you need to start experimenting with FPGAs.
iCE40-HX8K Breakout Board Lattice iCE40-HX8K-CT256 7,680 $49 No 8 LEDs, 8 switches. Very similar to icoBoard, but no Raspberry Pi or pmod accessories.
iCE40 UltraPlus Lattice iCE40 UltraPlus FPGA 5280 $99 No Chip specs. 4 switchable FPGAs, and a rechargeable battery. Bluetooth module, LCD Display (240 x 240 RGB), RGB LED, microphones, audio output, compass, pressure, gyro, accelerometer.
Go Board Lattice ICE40 HX1K FPGA 1280 $65 No 4 LEDs, 4 buttons, Dual 7-Segment LED Display, VGA, 25 MHz on-board clock, 1 Mb Flash.
snickerdoodle Xilinx Zynq 7010 28K $95 Yes Xilinx Zynq 7-Series SoC - ARM Cortex-A9 processor, and Artix-7 FPGA. 125 IO pins. 1GB DDR2 RAM. Texas Instruments WiLink 8 wireless module for 802.11n Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.1. No LEDs or buttons, but easy to wire up your own on a breadboard. If you want to use a baseboard, you'll need a snickerdoodle black ($195) with the pins in the "down" orientation. (E.g. The "breakyBreaky breakout board" ($49) or piSmasher SBC ($195)). The snickerdoodle one only comes with pins in the "up" orientation and doesn't support any baseboards. But you can still plug the jumpers into the pins and wire up things on a breadboard.
numato Mimas A7 Xilinx Artix 7 52K $149 No 2Gb DDR3 RAM. Gigabit Ethernet. HDMI IN/OUT. 100MHz LVDS oscillator. 80 IOs. 7-segment display, LEDs, buttons. (Found in this Reddit thread.)
Ultra96 Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ ZU3EG 154K $249 Yes Has one of the latest Xilinx SoCs. 2 GB (512M x32) LPDDR4 Memory. Wi-Fi / Bluetooth. Mini DisplayPort. 1x USB 3.0 type Micro-B, 2x USB 3.0 Type A. Audio I/O. Four user-controllable LEDs. No buttons and limited LEDs, but easy to wire up your own on a breadboard
Nexys A7-100T Xilinx Artix 7 15,850 $265 No . 128MiB DDR2 RAM. Ethernet port, PWM audio output, accelerometer, PDM microphone, microphone, etc. 16 switches, 16 LEDs. 7 segment displays. USB HID Host for mice, keyboards and memory sticks.
Zybo Z7-10 Xilinx Zynq 7010 17,600 $199 Yes Xilinx Zynq 7000 SoC (ARM Cortex-A9, 7-series FPGA.) 1 GB DDR3 RAM. A few switches, push buttons, and LEDs. USB and Ethernet. Audio in/out ports. HDMI source + sink with CEC. 8 Total Processor I/O, 40 Total FPGA I/O. Also a faster version for $299 (Zybo Z7-20).
Arty A7 Xilinx Artix 7 15K $119 No 256MB DDR3L. 10/100 Mbps Ethernet. A few switches, buttons, LEDs.
DE10-Standard (specs) Altera Cyclone V 110K $350 Yes Dual-core Cortex-A9 processor. Lots of buttons, LEDs, and other peripherals.
DE10-Nano Altera Cyclone V 110K $130 Yes Same as DE10-Standard, but not as many peripherals, buttons, LEDs, etc.

Winner:

icoBoard ($100). (Buy it here.)
The icoBoard plugs into a Raspberry Pi, so it's similar to having a SoC. The iCE40-HX8K chip comes with 7,680 LUTs (logic elements.) This means that after you learn the basics and create some simple circuits, you'll also have enough logic elements to run the VexRiscv soft-core CPU (the lightweight Murax SoC.)
The icoBoard also supports a huge range of pluggable pmod accessories:
You can pick whatever peripherals you're interested in, and buy some more in the future.
Every FPGA vendor keeps their bitstream format secret. (Here's a Hacker News discussion about it.) The iCE40-HX8K bitstream has been fully reverse engineered by Project IceStorm, and there is an open-source set of tools that can compile Verilog to iCE40 bitstream.
This means that you have the freedom to do some crazy experiments, like:
You don't really have the same freedom to explore these things with Xilinx or Altera FPGAs. (Especially asynchronous circuits.)

Links:

Second Place:

iCE40-HX8K Breakout Board ($49)

Third Place:

numato Mimas A7 ($149).
An excellent development board with a Xilinx Artix 7 FPGA, so you can play with a bigger / faster FPGA and run a full RISC-V soft-core with all the options enabled, and a much higher clock speed. (The iCE40 FPGAs are a bit slow and small.)
Note: I've changed my mind several times as I learned new things. Here's some of my previous thoughts.

What did I buy?

I ordered a iCE40-HX8K Breakout Board to try out the IceStorm open source tooling. (I would have ordered an icoBoard if I had found it earlier.) I also bought a numato Mimas A7 so that I could experiment with the Artix 7 FPGA and Xilinx software (Vivado Design Suite.)

Questions

What can I do with an FPGA? / How many LUTs do I need?

submitted by ndbroadbent to FPGA [link] [comments]

Technical Cryptonight Discussion: What about low-latency RAM (RLDRAM 3, QDR-IV, or HMC) + ASICs?

The Cryptonight algorithm is described as ASIC resistant, in particular because of one feature:
A megabyte of internal memory is almost unacceptable for the modern ASICs. 
EDIT: Each instance of Cryptonight requires 2MB of RAM. Therefore, any Cryptonight multi-processor is required to have 2MB per instance. Since CPUs are incredibly well loaded with RAM (ie: 32MB L3 on Threadripper, 16 L3 on Ryzen, and plenty of L2+L3 on Skylake Servers), it seems unlikely that ASICs would be able to compete well vs CPUs.
In fact, a large number of people seem to be incredibly confident in Cryptonight's ASIC resistance. And indeed, anyone who knows how standard DDR4 works knows that DDR4 is unacceptable for Cryptonight. GDDR5 similarly doesn't look like a very good technology for Cryptonight, focusing on high-bandwidth instead of latency.
Which suggests only an ASIC RAM would be able to handle the 2MB that Cryptonight uses. Solid argument, but it seems to be missing a critical point of analysis from my eyes.
What about "exotic" RAM, like RLDRAM3 ?? Or even QDR-IV?

QDR-IV SRAM

QDR-IV SRAM is absurdly expensive. However, its a good example of "exotic RAM" that is available on the marketplace. I'm focusing on it however because QDR-IV is really simple to describe.
QDR-IV costs roughly $290 for 16Mbit x 18 bits. It is true Static-RAM. 18-bits are for 8-bits per byte + 1 parity bit, because QDR-IV is usually designed for high-speed routers.
QDR-IV has none of the speed or latency issues with DDR4 RAM. There are no "banks", there are no "refreshes", there are no "obliterate the data as you load into sense amplifiers". There's no "auto-charge" as you load the data from the sense-amps back into the capacitors.
Anything that could have caused latency issues is gone. QDR-IV is about as fast as you can get latency-wise. Every clock cycle, you specify an address, and QDR-IV will generate a response every clock cycle. In fact, QDR means "quad data rate" as the SRAM generates 2-reads and 2-writes per clock cycle. There is a slight amount of latency: 8-clock cycles for reads (7.5nanoseconds), and 5-clock cycles for writes (4.6nanoseconds). For those keeping track at home: AMD Zen's L3 cache has a latency of 40 clocks: aka 10nanoseconds at 4GHz
Basically, QDR-IV BEATS the L3 latency of modern CPUs. And we haven't even begun to talk software or ASIC optimizations yet.

CPU inefficiencies for Cryptonight

Now, if that weren't bad enough... CPUs have a few problems with the Cryptonight algorithm.
  1. AMD Zen and Intel Skylake CPUs transfer from L3 -> L2 -> L1 cache. Each of these transfers are in 64-byte chunks. Cryptonight only uses 16 of these bytes. This means that 75% of L3 cache bandwidth is wasted on 48-bytes that would never be used per inner-loop of Cryptonight. An ASIC would transfer only 16-bytes at a time, instantly increasing the RAM's speed by 4-fold.
  2. AES-NI instructions on Ryzen / Threadripper can only be done one-per-core. This means a 16-core Threadripper can at most perform 16 AES encryptions per clock tick. An ASIC can perform as many as you'd like, up to the speed of the RAM.
  3. CPUs waste a ton of energy: there's L1 and L2 caches which do NOTHING in Cryptonight. There are floating-point units, memory controllers, and more. An ASIC which strips things out to only the bare necessities (basically: AES for Cryptonight core) would be way more power efficient, even at ancient 65nm or 90nm designs.

Ideal RAM access pattern

For all yall who are used to DDR4, here's a special trick with QDR-IV or RLDRAM. You can pipeline accesses in QDR-IV or RLDRAM. What does this mean?
First, it should be noted that Cryptonight has the following RAM access pattern:
QDR-IV and RLDRAM3 still have latency involved. Assuming 8-clocks of latency, the naive access pattern would be:
  1. Read
  2. Stall
  3. Stall
  4. Stall
  5. Stall
  6. Stall
  7. Stall
  8. Stall
  9. Stall
  10. Write
  11. Stall
  12. Stall
  13. Stall
  14. Stall
  15. Stall
  16. Stall
  17. Stall
  18. Stall
  19. Read #2
  20. Stall
  21. Stall
  22. Stall
  23. Stall
  24. Stall
  25. Stall
  26. Stall
  27. Stall
  28. Write #2
  29. Stall
  30. Stall
  31. Stall
  32. Stall
  33. Stall
  34. Stall
  35. Stall
  36. Stall
This isn't very efficient: the RAM sits around waiting. Even with "latency reduced" RAM, you can see that the RAM still isn't doing very much. In fact, this is why people thought Cryptonight was safe against ASICs.
But what if we instead ran four instances in parallel? That way, there is always data flowing.
  1. Cryptonight #1 Read
  2. Cryptonight #2 Read
  3. Cryptonight #3 Read
  4. Cryptonight #4 Read
  5. Stall
  6. Stall
  7. Stall
  8. Stall
  9. Stall
  10. Cryptonight #1 Write
  11. Cryptonight #2 Write
  12. Cryptonight #3 Write
  13. Cryptonight #4 Write
  14. Stall
  15. Stall
  16. Stall
  17. Stall
  18. Stall
  19. Cryptonight #1 Read #2
  20. Cryptonight #2 Read #2
  21. Cryptonight #3 Read #2
  22. Cryptonight #4 Read #2
  23. Stall
  24. Stall
  25. Stall
  26. Stall
  27. Stall
  28. Cryptonight #1 Write #2
  29. Cryptonight #2 Write #2
  30. Cryptonight #3 Write #2
  31. Cryptonight #4 Write #2
  32. Stall
  33. Stall
  34. Stall
  35. Stall
  36. Stall
Notice: we're doing 4x the Cryptonight in the same amount of time. Now imagine if the stalls were COMPLETELY gone. DDR4 CANNOT do this. And that's why most people thought ASICs were impossible for Cryptonight.
Unfortunately, RLDRAM3 and QDR-IV can accomplish this kind of pipelining. In fact, that's what they were designed for.

RLDRAM3

As good as QDR-IV RAM is, its way too expensive. RLDRAM3 is almost as fast, but is way more complicated to use and describe. Due to the lower cost of RLDRAM3 however, I'd assume any ASIC for CryptoNight would use RLDRAM3 instead of the simpler QDR-IV. RLDRAM3 32Mbit x36 bits costs $180 at quantities == 1, and would support up to 64-Parallel Cryptonight instances (In contrast, a $800 AMD 1950x Threadripper supports 16 at the best).
Such a design would basically operate at the maximum speed of RLDRAM3. In the case of x36-bit bus and 2133MT/s, we're talking about 2133 / (Burst Length4 x 4 read/writes x 524288 inner loop) == 254 Full Cryptonight Hashes per Second.
254 Hashes per second sounds low, and it is. But we're talking about literally a two-chip design here. 1-chip for RAM, 1-chip for the ASIC/AES stuff. Such a design would consume no more than 5 Watts.
If you were to replicate the ~5W design 60-times, you'd get 15240 Hash/second at 300 Watts.

RLDRAM2

Depending on cost calculations, going cheaper and "making more" might be a better idea. RLDRAM2 is widely available at only $32 per chip at 800 MT/s.
Such a design would theoretically support 800 / 4x4x524288 == 95 Cryptonight Hashes per second.
The scary part: The RLDRAM2 chip there only uses 1W of power. Together, you get 5 Watts again as a reasonable power-estimate. x60 would be 5700 Hashes/second at 300 Watts.
Here's Micron's whitepaper on RLDRAM2: https://www.micron.com/~/media/documents/products/technical-note/dram/tn4902.pdf . RLDRAM3 is the same but denser, faster, and more power efficient.

Hybrid Cube Memory

Hybrid Cube Memory is "stacked RAM" designed for low latency. As far as I can tell, Hybrid Cube memory allows an insane amount of parallelism and pipelining. It'd be the future of an ASIC Cryptonight design. The existence of Hybrid Cube Memory is more about "Generation 2" or later. In effect, it demonstrates that future designs can be lower-power and give higher-speed.

Realistic ASIC Sketch: RLDRAM3 + Parallel Processing

The overall board design would be the ASIC, which would be a simple pipelined AES ASIC that talks with RLDRAM3 ($180) or RLDRAM2 ($30).
Its hard for me to estimate an ASIC's cost without the right tools or design. But a multi-project wafer like MOSIS offers "cheap" access to 14nm and 22nm nodes. Rumor is that this is roughly $100k per run for ~40 dies, suitable for research-and-development. Mass production would require further investments, but mass production at the ~65nm node is rumored to be in the single-digit $$millions or maybe even just 6-figures or so.
So realistically speaking: it'd take ~$10 Million investment + a talented engineer (or team of engineers) who are familiar with RLDRAM3, PCIe 3.0, ASIC design, AES, and Cryptonight to build an ASIC.

TL;DR:

submitted by dragontamer5788 to Monero [link] [comments]

[PoW|Hash] SquashPoW - ASIC Resistant, Assymetric Hash

Discussions in ProgPoW, Ethash and RandomX resulted in one agreement. Memory-intensity (mainly bus-intensity) can be used to achieve or increase the resistance against ASICs, to bring back mining to the average Joe and re-distribute mining.
Meanwhile, a new algorithm called rainforest started being used in new coins such as MicroBitcoin. While the developer of said algorithm seems to be confident that their algorithm is expensive for ASICs and FPGAs to implement, issues have been found in the code, which resulted in (closed-source) GPU miners running at 1000x the original speed and FPGA-Vendors listing this algorithm as one of the coins possible to mine.
Using the research done for the rainforest algorithm, a brand new hash called "Squash" has been created. It has similar properties to rainforest, meaning that it still utilizes "expensive" functions, but also speeds very close to blake2 (5.5 to 4 cycles per byte, depending on the architecture).
To also have shared properties with Ethash and ProgPoW, a variant called SquashPoW has been designed. It uses the same interior design. This supposedly results in expensive ASICs with low potential gain and more importantly - asymmetry. Asymmetry allows developers or "coins" to force a miner to run on a relatively large scratchpad while a verifier can run on significantly less resources and therefore still inherit the ability to properly validate incoming blocks. More on that in the ethash design rationale.
Now, whats new in SquashPoW?
In case you are now interested in testing out SquashPoW, I highly recommend checkout out the source code which can be seen at the official GitHub Repository.
Please note, SquashPoW is merely a variation of the concepts of Ethash. If you enjoy this hash, please show the original some love.
Please also note, that this is merely a post to spread awareness.
EDIT: A reference implementation can be found here
submitted by Luke_ClashProject to CryptoNoteTech [link] [comments]

[Very long, very serious] Development summary week ending 18th April 2014

When I got my first full time job, I used to try implementing requests from everyone as they came in, and for a while people really loved that I listened to their requests. Over time, however, things started to go wrong. I’d apply a change someone asked for, and in doing so would break something elsewhere in the code, in some subtle way that was missed in short-term testing. I’d fix that second bug and reveal a third. I’d fix that just in time for a new request to come in, and the process repeat. This led to the term “Bug whack-a-mole”, wherein I was spending time mostly fixing bugs introduced to live systems through rushing through earlier bug fixes.
So this week, we’ve had a lot of people asking about changes to proof-of-work, especially X11, or even moving to proof of stake, primarily in an attempt to address risk of a 51% attack. A 51% attack is where one actor (person, group, organisation, whatever) gains control of enough resources to be able to create their own blockchain, isolated from the main blockchain, at a rate at least as quickly as the main blockchain is being created. They can then spend Dogecoins on the main blockchain, before releasing their fake blockchain; if their fake blockchain is longer than the existing blockchain, nodes will switch to the new blockchain (as they would when repairing a fork), and essentially the spent Dogecoin on the main blockchain are reversed and can be spent again. This is mostly of consequence to exchanges and payment processors (such as Moolah), who are most likely to end up holding the loss from the double-spend.
The concern about a 51% attack stems from a couple of weeks ago now, when Wafflepool was around 50% of the network hashrate (mining power). It’s still high (at the time of wring about 32GH/s out of almost 74GH/s, or about 43%), but it is diminishing as a proportion.
Lets talk about proof of stake first, as this one’s simpler. Proof of stake has been suggested as a way of avoiding the risk of Wafflepool having control of too many mining resources by itself, by changing from securing the blockchain through computational resources (work), to using number of Dogecoin held. The theory is that those with most Dogecoins have most to lose, and will act in their own interests. Major examples of proof of stake coins include Peercoin, Mintcoin and more recently Blackcoin.
However, this essentially means we take control from Wafflepool, and hand it to Cryptsy (who are considered most likely to be the holder of some of the huge Dogecoin wallets out there). I by no means expect either organisation to attempt a 51% attack, but hopefully it’s clear that simply switching risks isn’t actually improving things. I’ve also had significant concerns raised from the merchant/payment processor community about potential impact of proof of stake, and that it may encourage hoarding (as coins are awarded for holding coins, rather than for mining). The price instability of Mintcoin and Blackcoin (and that Peercoin appears to only avoid this through very high transaction fees to keep the entire network inert) does not encourage confidence, either. For now, proof of stake remains something we’re keeping in mind, primarily in case price does not react as anticipated to mining reward decreases over time, but certainly we’re not eager to rush into such a change.
Before I get into a discussion on proof of work, let me summarise this quickly; right now, uncertainty about changes is holding back our community from adopting ASICs. It’s high risk to spend hundreds, thousands or in some cases significantly more on ASIC hardware which could be left useless if we move. Those who have already purchased ASICs to support the Dogecoin hashrate would most likely have to mine Litecoin to recover sunk costs, if we did move. ASICs are virtually inevitable, and in our assessment we are better off pushing for rapid adoption, rather than expending resources delaying a problem which will re-occur later.
At the time of writing the development team has no plans to change proof of work algorithm outside of the eventuality of a major security break to Scrypt. We are focusing on mitigation approaches in case of a 51% attack, and adoption of the coin as the most sustainable approaches to dealing with this risk.
The X11 algorithm has been proposed as an alternative proof of work algorithm. X11, for those unaware, was introduced with Darkcoin. It’s a combination of 11 different SHA-3 candidate algorithms, using multiple rounds of hashing. The main advantage championed for Darkcoin is that current implementations run cooler on GPU hardware. Beyond that, there’s a lot of confusion over what it does and does not do. As I’m neither an algorithms or electronics specialist, I recruited a colleague who previously worked on the CERN computing grid to assist, and the following is primarily his analysis. A full technical report is coming for anyone who really likes detail, this is just a summary:
A lot of people presume X11 is ASIC resistant; it’s not. Candidate algorithms for SHA-3 were assessed on a number of criteria, including simplicity to implement in hardware. All 11 algorithms have been implemented in FPGA hardware, and several in ASIC hardware already. The use of multiple algorithms does significantly complicate ASIC development, as it means the resulting chip would likely be extremely large. This has consequences for production, as the area of a chip is the main determining factor for likelihood of an error in the chip.
The short version being that while yes it would take significant resources to make an efficient ASIC for X11, for a long time Scrypt was considered infeasible to adapt to ASICs. As stated earlier, any move would most likely be nothing more than an extremely expensive and risky delaying manoeuvre. ASIC efficiency would also depend heavily on ability to optimise the combination of the algorithms; a naive implementation would run at around the rate of the slowest hashing algorithm, however if any common elements could be found amongst the algorithms, it may be that this could be improved upon significantly
There are also significant areas of concern with regards to X11. The “thermal efficiency” is most likely a result of the algorithm being a poor fit for GPU hardware. This means that GPU mining is closer to CPU mining (the X11 Wiki article suggests a ratio of 3:1 for GPU/CPU mining performance), however it also means that if a way of was found to improve performance there could be significantly faster software miners, leading to an ASIC-like edge without any of the hardware development costs. The component algorithms are all relatively new, and several were rejected during the SHA-3 competition for security concerns (see http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/hash/sha-3/Round2/documents/Round2_Report_NISTIR_7764.pdf for full details). Security criteria for SHA-3 algorithms was also focused on ability to generate collisions, rather than on producing hashes with specific criteria (such as number of leading 0s, which is how proof of work is usually assessed).
X11 is a fascinating algorithm for new coins, however I would consider it exceptionally high risk for any existing coin to adopt.
Beyond algorithm analysis, this week has been mostly about testing 1.7. Last weekend Patrick raised the issue that we had been incorrectly running the automated tests, which had led to several automated test failures being missed earlier. This led to other tasks being dropped as we quickly reworked the tests to match Dogecoin parameters instead of Bitcoin. So far, all tests have passed successfully once updated to match Dogecoin, however this work continues. On the bright side, it turns out we have a lot more automated tests than we realised, which is very useful for later development.
The source code repository for Dogecoin now also uses Travis CI, which sanity-checks patches submitted to the project, to help us catch any potential problems earlier, thanks to Tazz for leading the charge on that. This is particularly important as of course we’re developing on different platforms (Windows, OS X, Linux) and what works on one, may not work on others. Over time, this should be a significant time saver for the developers. For anyone wanting to help push Dogecoin forward, right now the most productive thing to be doing is testing either Dogecoin, or helping Bitcoin Core test pull requests. Feel free to drop by our Freenode channel for guidance on getting started with either.
Right now, I’m working on the full technical report on X11, and will then be back working on the payment protocol for Dogecoin. I’ve approached a few virus scanning software companies about offering their products for Dogecoin, with so far no response, but will update you all if I hear more.
Lastly, the next halvening (mining reward halving) is currently expected late on the 27th or early on the 28th, both times GMT. Given that it was initially expected on the 25th, we’re obviously seeing some slippage in estimates, and a total off the top of my head guess would be that we’ll see it around 0500 GMT on the 28th at this rate. I have taken the 28th off from the day job, and will be around both before and after in case of any problems (love you guys, not getting up at 5am to check on the blockchain, though!)
submitted by rnicoll to dogecoin [link] [comments]

Anyone bullish on XLNX?

There's a pretty interesting debate in the AI space right now on whether FPGAs or ASICs are the way to go for hardware-accelerated AI in production. To summarize, it's more about how to operationalize AI - how to use already trained models with millions of parameters to get real-time predictions, like in video analysis or complex time series models based on deep neural networks. Training those AI models still seems to favor GPUs for now.
Google seem to be betting big on ASICs with their TPU. On the other hand, Microsoft and Amazon seem to favor FPGAs. In fact Microsoft have recently partnered with Xilinx to add FPGA co-processors on half of their servers (they were previously only using Intel's Altera).
The FPGA is the more flexible piece of hardware but it is less efficient than an ASIC, and have been notoriously hard to program against (though things are improving). There's also a nice article out there summarizing the classical FPGA conundrum: they're great for designing and prototyping but as soon as your architecture stabilizes and you're looking to ramp up production, taking the time to do an ASIC will more often be the better investment.
So the question (for me) is where AI inference will be in that regard. I'm sure Google's projects are large scale enough that an ASIC makes sense, but not everyone is Google. And there is so much research being done in the AI space right now and everyone's putting out so many promising new ideas that being more flexible might carry an advantage. Google have already put out three versions of their TPUs in the space of two years
Which brings me back to Xilinx. They have a promising platform for AI acceleration both in the datacenter and embedded devices which was launched two months ago. If it catches on it's gonna give them a nice boost for the next couple of years. If it doesn't, they still have traditional Industrial, Aerospace & Defense workloads to fall back on...
Another wrinkle is their SoCs are being used in crypto mining ASICs like Antminer, so you never know how that demand is gonna go. As the value of BTC continues to sink there is constant demand for more efficient mining hardware, and I do think cryptocurrencies are here to stay. While NVDA has fallen off a cliff recently due to excess GPU inventory, XLNX has kept steady.

XLNX TTM P/E is 28.98
Semiconductors - Programmable Logic industry's TTM P/E is 26.48

Thoughts?
submitted by neaorin to StockMarket [link] [comments]

Will I earn money by mining? - An answer to all newcomers

When people start their adventure with Bitcoin, they often go through a small gold fever with the concept of mining (I would know, that's how I started ;) ). Here is a small guide to answer your eternal question "will I make money with it?":
First of all, lets talk about hardware (click on the link for a long and useful list). You won't make money mining bitcoins unless you either have a really high-end GPU from ATI, an FPGA or an ASIC. That's the short answer. Having a decent CPU can be used for Litecoin mining, which can be a small income in itself, but we are here to talk about Bitcoin.
To see whether you will earn any money, you need to input a few pieces of data into a special calculator:
And then there are two magical variables that will either make it all work out, or be doomed for failure: * difficulty - it is automatically filled in by the calculator, but for long-term mining (more than a few weeks), you want to be a pessimist. Multiply the value by 10 for predictions over a few months or 100 for a year or two (it will rise steeply soon) * bitcoin price - also filled by the calculator - it might go up or down in the future, affecting your bottom line. It will probably increase in the long run, but lets be pessimistic and lower that to $10-$20 to make sure we are earning money no matter what
Having all your hard data and your guesses on the last two variables, you put it all into the mining calculator and see what you get. You will get your earnings in BTC and dollars, as well as summary of your costs and when you will brake even, and what will your net income be over your investment period.
Most likely you won't be earning money with Bitcoin mining, and that's okay - mining has become a very specialised process. If you want to invest money into new ASICs, you might be able to turn a tidy profit.
TLDR: Use this to check everything. ASICs may earn you money, GPUs won't anymore.
submitted by ThePiachu to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Concept of Bitcoin

The Concept of Bitcoin
https://preview.redd.it/5r9soz2ltq421.jpg?width=268&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6a89685f735b53ec1573eefe08c8646970de8124
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is an experimental system of transfer and verification of property based on a network of peer to peer without any central authority.
The initial application and the main innovation of the Bitcoin network is a system of digital currency decentralized unit of account is bitcoin.
Bitcoin works with software and a protocol that allows participants to issue bitcoins and manage transactions in a collective and automatic way. As a free Protocol (open source), it also allows interoperability of software and services that use it. As a currency bitcoin is both a medium of payment and a store of value.
Bitcoin is designed to self-regulate. The limited inflation of the Bitcoin system is distributed homogeneously by computing the network power, and will be limited to 21 million divisible units up to the eighth decimal place. The functioning of the Exchange is secured by a general organization that everyone can examine, because everything is public: the basic protocols, cryptographic algorithms, programs making them operational, the data of accounts and discussions of the developers.
The possession of bitcoins is materialized by a sequence of numbers and letters that make up a virtual key allowing the expenditure of bitcoins associated with him on the registry. A person may hold several key compiled in a 'Bitcoin Wallet ', 'Keychain' web, software or hardware which allows access to the network in order to make transactions. Key to check the balance in bitcoins and public keys to receive payments. It contains also (often encrypted way) the private key associated with the public key. These private keys must remain secret, because their owner can spend bitcoins associated with them on the register. All support (keyrings) agrees to maintain the sequence of symbols constituting your keychain: paper, USB, memory stick, etc. With appropriate software, you can manage your assets on your computer or your phone.
Bitcoin on an account, to either a holder of bitcoins in has given you, for example in Exchange for property, either go through an Exchange platform that converts conventional currencies in bitcoins, is earned by participating in the operations of collective control of the currency.
The sources of Bitcoin codes have been released under an open source license MIT which allows to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the software, subject to insert a copyright notice into all copies.
Bitcoin creator, Satoshi Nakamoto
What is the Mining of bitcoin?
Technical details :
During mining, your computer performs cryptographic hashes (two successive SHA256) on what is called a header block. For each new hash, mining software uses a different random number that called Nuncio. According to the content of the block and the nonce value typically used to express the current target. This number is called the difficulty of mining. The difficulty of mining is calculated by comparing how much it is difficult to generate a block compared to the first created block. This means that a difficulty of 70000 is 70000 times more effort that it took to Satoshi Nakamoto to generate the first block. Where mining was much slower and poorly optimized.
The difficulty changes each 2016 blocks. The network tries to assign the difficulty in such a way that global computing power takes exactly 14 days to generate 2016 blocks. That's why the difficulty increases along with the power of the network.
Material :
In the beginning, mining with a processor (CPU) was the only way to undermine bitcoins. (GPU) graphics cards have possibly replaced the CPU due to their nature, which allowed an increase between 50 x to 100 x in computing power by using less electricity by megahash compared to a CPU.
Although any modern GPU can be used to make the mining, the brand AMD GPU architecture has proved to be far superior to nVidia to undermine bitcoins and the ATI Radeon HD 5870 card was the most economical for a time.
For a more complete list of graphics cards and their performance, see Wiki Bitcoin: comparison of mining equipment
In the same way that transition CPU to GPU, the world of mining has evolved into the use of the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) as a mining platform. Although FPGAs did not offer an increase of 50 x to 100 x speed of calculation as the transition from CPU to GPU, they offered a better energy efficiency.
A typical HD/s 600 graphics card consumes about 400w of power, while a typical FPGA device can offer a rate of hash of 826 MH/s to 80w of power consumption, a gain of 5 x more calculations for the same energy power. Since energy efficiency is a key factor in the profitability of mining, it was an important step for the GPU to FPGA migration for many people.
The world of the mining of bitcoin is now migrating to the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). An ASIC is a chip designed specifically to accomplish a single task. Unlike FPGAs, an ASIC is unable to be reprogrammed for other tasks. An ASIC designed to undermine bitcoins cannot and will not do anything else than to undermine bitcoins.
The stiffness of an ASIC allows us to offer an increase of 100 x computing power while reducing power consumption compared to all other technologies. For example, a classic device to offer 60 GH/s (1 hashes equals 1000 Megahash. 1GH/s = 1000 Mh/s) while consuming 60w of electricity. Compared to the GPU, it is an increase in computing power of 100 x and a reduction of power consumption by a factor of 7.
Unlike the generations of technologies that have preceded the ASIC, ASIC is the "end of the line" when we talk about important technology change. The CPUs have been replaced by the GPUs, themselves replaced by FPGAs that were replaced by ASICs.
There is nothing that can replace the ASICs now or in the immediate future. There will be technological refinements in ASIC products, and improvements in energy efficiency, but nothing that may match increased from 50 x to 100 x the computing power or a 7 x reduction in power consumption compared with the previous technology.
Which means that the energy efficiency of an ASIC device is the only important factor of all product ASIC, since the estimated lifetime of an ASIC device is superior to the entire history of the mining of bitcoin. It is conceivable that a purchased ASIC device today is still in operation in two years if the unit still offers a profitable enough economic to keep power consumption. The profitability of mining is also determined by the value of bitcoin but in all cases, more a device has a good energy efficiency, it is profitable.
Software :
There are two ways to make mining: by yourself or as part of a team (a pool). If you are mining for yourself, you must install the Bitcoin software and configure it to JSON-RPC (see: run Bitcoin). The other option is to join a pool. There are multiple available pools. With a pool, the profit generated by any block generated by a member of the team is split between all members of the team. The advantage of joining a team is to increase the frequency and stability of earnings (this is called reduce the variance) but gains will be lower. In the end, you will earn the same amount with the two approaches. Undermine solo allows you to receive earnings huge but very infrequent, while miner with a pool can offer you small stable and steady gains.
Once you have your software configured or that you have joined a pool, the next step is to configure the mining software. The software the most populare for ASIC/FPGA/GPU currently is CGminer or a derivative designed specifically for FPGAS and ASICs, BFGMiner.
If you want a quick overview of mining without install any software, try Bitcoin Plus, a Bitcoin minor running in your browser with your CPU. It is not profitable to make serious mining, but it is a good demonstration of the principle of the mining team.
submitted by Josephbitcoin to u/Josephbitcoin [link] [comments]

FAQ#1: Can I mine Bitcoins using this old thing I found in my closet?

If you're wondering whether or not it is feasible to mine Bitcoin using your CPU, GPU (video card), cell phone, ps3, xbox, or original 1985 NES.
The true answer to that question if you are being pedantic is: Yes, you can!
The time required to get setup initially and the electrical efficiency of the hardware in question usually deduces the same answer from economically minded people, however. Which is: No!
Bitcoin mining is a highly competitive technological arms race, and you should never bring a knife to a gun fight.
The only two types of Bitcoin miners you want to be looking at right now are:
Feel free to kindly link any newbies asking a similar question to this post and downvote their original one, you can find this post stickied in the sidebar.
submitted by HighBeamHater to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

Cryptography and the future of single-crypto coins verse multi-crypto coins

BitCoin, currently the world's largest decentralized digital currency, has made headlines throughout the world. With market values of over $1,000 per coin, it has become a valuable commodity to invest in. Many individuals, though, do not understand basic underpinnings of Bitcoin, and all altcoins (a term used to describe other digital currencies) as it applies to cryptography.
BitCoin is based on a cryptographic hash function called SHA-256, which is a subset of SHA-2. SHA-2 was created by the US National Security Agency (NSA) in 2001.[1] Currently, it is one of the most secure and most widely used cryptographic functions in the world.
While SHA-2 has proven it's strength over the years, it's not without it's weaknesses. Like most cryptoalgorithms, it is susceptible to birthday attacks, collisions, and man-in-the-middle attacks. While SHA-2 is still sufficient despite these possible weaknesses, it is difficult to say what the future holds for SHA-2. If the basic concept of a currency can be seen to be undermined at any point in the future, how can said currency maintain long-term value?
Enter Quark (QRK). Quark is a distributed, non-centralized currency much like BitCoin, but several key differences. This article will focus solely on the cryptographic changes. Quark employes not one cryptographic function, but a combination of six functions: blake, bmw, grøstl, jh, keccak, skein. These are the six finalists of the NIST hash function competition which ended in October 2012. [2] While I won't go into specific detail on each cryptographic algorithm here, I'll explain why these multiple algorithms help Quark in the long-run.
As previously mentioned BitCoin (and other digital currencies) are based on one cryptographic algorithm, leaving them open to possible attacks in the future. While BitCoin users have discussed the possibility of shifting cryptos in the future [3], it is not a guaranteed option, and could cause instability with the BitCoin value. With the market booming with ASIC and FPGA mining hardware, there are more opportunities for individuals to turn their hardware power into attacking SHA-2 mechanisms to simply destroy the BitCoin value.
With multi-layer multi-hash algorithms such as the ones Quark employes, it makes it extremely difficult to break down the entire structure. Even if a weakness is found in one – or even more – of the cryptographic algorithms that Quark employes, it doesn't destroy the entire structure, due to the “avalanche” affect of cryptoalgorithms.
Multi-tiered cryptoalgorithms provide the optimal basis for a currency to stand the test of time. Not only does it provide much more durability and security than single-hash functions, it extremely limits the abilities of ASIC miners to disrupt the mining market, making mining viable for “entry-level” and “mid-level” miners to still make it worth their time and computing power.
Resources: [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-2 [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NIST_hash_function_competition [3] https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=191.msg1585#msg1585
EDIT: 11:31 CST, 12/16/13 ... Fixed known typos.
submitted by mechman991 to QuarkCoin [link] [comments]

An opinion on how Bitcoin is good for gaming [xpost r/truegaming]

A few days ago, I was a bit bored (read: procrastinating), and I ended up reading about Bitcoin. For those of you unfamiliar with the topic, the gist is this:
Bitcoin is a decentralized currency based entirely in cyberspace which is derived based on cryptographic hashes. The value is based on whatever value the market as a collective assigns to it, much like most modern currencies (USD, Euro, etc.). Transactions are enacted entirely over p2p systems, so it has useful applications ranging from legal online marketplace deals, to gray-area deals such as Wikileaks donations, to illicit activities on Silk Road, much like real world cash. New bitcoin units are 'mined' by using a computer to crack the encrypted provided by the p2p system.
Summarized from wikipedia and the official site
What applies to gaming is the mining of new coins. Originally users would let their cpu mine out the encryption blocks, but as the difficulty of mining increased, the users had to pool resources and work together. Eventually, someone realized that more efficient mining could be done using a computer's gpu as opposed to the cpu. The reason this was a big step has to do with the gpu's ability to much more effectively crunch the numbers of the encrypted block (for more information read the informative wiki page on it). As more users switched to this method, the difficulty increased to balance the new abilities. Avarice finds a way though, the more devoted users are employing devoted 'mining rigs' to increase profits. Some entrepreneurial souls have started producing and marketing advanced rigs for extreme mining (e.g. ztex and butterflylabs ).
This may not be good for the Bitcoin economy as a whole though, because it generates an upper echelon of powerusers who can afford the economic arms-race, and it may not be ultimately sustainable. BUT, this would be good for gaming because if the arms race continues we could see accelerated the development of gpu technology. This is all conjecture of course, but in my opinion, a Bitcoin bubble may be good for the community as a whole.
Conflict of Interest note: I am not affiliated with Bitcoin and do not personally invest in this currency.
Comment from thread:
You wrongly assume that bitcoins are even a factor in pushing hardware manufacturers to improve. It's not even a drop in the bucket compared to all other more relevant types of software that make use of graphics cards. -FromMars
Reply:
My view was that this niche allows smaller companies to come in and compete with the larger manufacturers (AMD/Nvidia) and bring new ideas to the table for efficient processing. I concede that high end applications will probably drive the gpu industry, but I posit that there is a chance for outside development ideas. -wessubba
submitted by wessubba to hardware [link] [comments]

Bitcoin mining evolves from GPU to FPGA and now custom ASIC

Bitcoin mining used to be rows of consumer gpu's brute-forcing the sha-256 encryption (max 2000 Mhash/s). After that people and companies started using expensive fpga setups to do it faster (100-25000 Mhash/s). Now companies have developed custom ASIC for bitcoin mining. (Avalon , Bitforce , Deepbit). It has an impressive speed of 4.5K -> 1500K Mhash/s . This increase of computing ability will probably put the gpu mining out of business and shake up the market abit.
Some numbers: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Mining_hardware_comparison
submitted by spikeee to TheAmpHour [link] [comments]

Será que vou ganhar dinheiro com mineração? – Uma reposta para novatos em Bitcoin

Quando as pessoas começam a se aventurar com o Bitcoin, elas geralmente entram numa pequena “febre do ouro” com o conceito de mineração (Eu sei bem como é, eu comecei assim ;) ). Aqui daremos um pequeno guia para responder à eterna pergunta: “eu farei dinheiro com isso?”.
Em primeiro lugar, vamos falar sobre hardware [https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Mining_hardware_comparison] (clique no link para uma longa e útil lista). Você não irá fazer dinheiro minerando bitcoins a não ser que você tenha uma GPU da ATI, FPGA ou ASIC. Esta é uma resposta curta. Tendo uma CPU decente você pode minerar Litecoin [htpp://litecoin.org/], que pode ser uma pequena fonte de renda, mas nós estamos aqui para falar sobre Bitcoin.
Para ver se você vai ganhar algum dinheiro, você precisa colocar algumas pequenas informações numa calculadora especial [http://tpbitcalc.appspot.com/]:
E então existem duas variáveis mágicas que vão ou fazer tudo funcionar perfeitamente, ou condenar tudo ao fracasso: dificuldade – isto é automaticamente preenchido pela calculadora, mas para mineração por longos períodos (mais do que algumas semanas), você deve ser pessimista. Multiplique o valor por 10 para previsões acima de alguns meses ou 100 por um ano ou dois (isso vai subir em breve) *preço do bitcoin – também automaticamente preenchido pela calculadora – ele pode subir ou descer no futuro, afetando seu resultado final. Ele provavelmente subirá a longo tempo, mas vamos ser pessimistas e baixar esse preço para US$10-20 para ter certeza de que ganhemos dinheiro não importa o que aconteça.
Dedique todo o seu espaço de disco e palpites nessas duas variáveis, coloque tudo isso na calculadora de mineração e veja no que dá. Você terá seus ganhos em BTC e dólares, bem como um resumo de seus custos e ainda quando você pode ficar sem dinheiro, e qual será seu lucro líquido depois de seu período de investimento. O mais provável é que você não irá conseguir fazer dinheiro com mineração, e está tudo bem – mineração se tornou um processo bastante especializado. Se você quiser investir seu dinheiro em um novo ASIC, você pode ser capaz de conseguir de obter um lucro considerável.
Um resumo rápido para os preguiçosos: Use isso [http://tpbitcalc.appspot.com/] para verificar tudo. ASICs merecem o investimento de seu dinheiro, GPUs não.
submitted by allex2501 to BrasilBitcoin [link] [comments]

An opinion on how Bitcoin is good for gaming.

A few days ago, I was a bit bored (read: procrastinating), and I ended up reading about Bitcoin. For those of you unfamiliar with the topic, the gist is this:
Bitcoin is a decentralized currency based entirely in cyberspace which is derived based on cryptographic hashes. The value is based on whatever value the market as a collective assigns to it, much like most modern currencies (USD, Euro, etc.). Transactions are enacted entirely over p2p systems, so it has useful applications ranging from legal online marketplace deals, to gray-area deals such as Wikileaks donations, to illicit activities on Silk Road, much like real world cash. New bitcoin units are 'mined' by using a computer to crack the encrypted provided by the p2p system.
Summarized from wikipedia and the official site
What applies to gaming is the mining of new coins. Originally users would let their cpu mine out the encryption blocks, but as the difficulty of mining increased, the users had to pool resources and work together. Eventually, someone realized that more efficient mining could be done using a computer's gpu as opposed to the cpu. The reason this was a big step has to do with the gpu's ability to much more effectively crunch the numbers of the encrypted block (for more information read the informative wiki page on it). As more users switched to this method, the difficulty increased to balance the new abilities. Avarice finds a way though, the more devoted users are employing devoted 'mining rigs' to increase profits. Some entrepreneurial souls have started producing and marketing advanced rigs for extreme mining (e.g. ztex and butterflylabs ).
This may not be good for the Bitcoin economy as a whole though, because it generates an upper echelon of powerusers who can afford the economic arms-race, and it may not be ultimately sustainable. BUT, this would be good for gaming because if the arms race continues we could see accelerated the development of gpu technology. This is all conjecture of course, but in my opinion, a Bitcoin bubble may be good for the community as a whole.
Conflict of Interest note: I am not affiliated with Bitcoin and do not personally invest in this currency.
submitted by wessubba to truegaming [link] [comments]

Butterfly Labs BitForce FPGA SHA256 Single Bitcoin Mining rig T4D #84 - Pt 2 Bitcoin Mining, BFL ASIC vs FPGA vs GPU vs CPU Quad FPGA Bitcoin mining Board unboxing Bitcoin Mining Hardware - CPUs, GPUs, FPGAs and ASICs How to mine Bitcoins with ASIC Miners

Mining is the process where nodes in the Bitcoin Network assemble newly broadcast Bitcoin Transactions into a data structure called a block. Nodes then compete to append their block to the public Block chain by repeatedly mutating the block's header data structure, usually by incrementing the nonce field, then hashing it in an attempt to find a value that satisfies a difficult proof-of-work . Below are statistics about the Bitcoin Mining performance of ASIC hardware and only includes specialized equipment that has been shipped. GPUs, CPUs and other hardware not specifically designed for Bitcoin mining can be found in the Non-specialized_hardware_comparison. Notes: Mhash/s = millions hashes per second (double sha256 raw speed performance; may not be very energy efficient with some ... In general, the FPGA boards have not been designed explicitly for mining, but if they get programmed properly, the same could reach a very high computing power on many algorithms. Usually, the intensive and prolonged use of the board produces a heat that must be evaporated efficiently in order to secure good performance and longer-life of the board itself (duration and a performance over time). Bitcoin mining is a transaction record process with bitcoins to blockchain – the public database of all the operations with Bitcoin, which is responsible for the transaction confirmation. Network nodes use blockchain to differ the real transactions from the attempt to spend the same facilities twice. The main mining objective is reaching a consensus between network nodes on which ... Die Kosten für die Mining-Hardware sind dem Bitcoin Wiki (2013) entnommen und in der Tabelle 2 aufgeführt. Der FPGA Rig wird nicht mehr vertrieben, daher ist für diesen kein Preis angegeben. Um trotzdem die Gewinnspanne dieser Hardware zu betrachten wird in Abschnitt 3.5 eine Break-Even-Point-Analyse durchgeführt. Damit Schwankungen von Wechselkursen in der Berechnung nicht berücksichtigt ...

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Butterfly Labs BitForce FPGA SHA256 Single Bitcoin Mining rig

T4D #84 - Pt 2 Bitcoin Mining, BFL ASIC vs FPGA vs GPU vs CPU - Duration: 28:50. ... ThaFresh's ultimate Bitcoin Mining rig, featuring hardware from Butterfly Labs - Duration: 1:21. Mark English ... 50+ videos Play all Mix - Bitcoin Mining Hardware - CPUs, GPUs, FPGAs and ASICs YouTube Tips for Small Bitcoin Miners to Maximize Their Advantages - Duration: 26:55. Block Operations 93,508 views FPGA Mining Is Back! Crushes GPU Mining with $20-57 a Day per Card ... ELE 432- FPGA Bitcoin Miner - Duration: 4:08. Burak 14,472 views. 4:08. 8 x Xilinx VCU1525 FPGA Crypto-Mining Rig Demo ... BitCoin Mining FPGA Card - Duration: 4:06. ... ThaFresh's ultimate Bitcoin Mining rig, featuring hardware from Butterfly Labs - Duration: 1:21. Mark English 28,195 views. 1:21. Complete detail of ... In this video I take a look at Bitcoin mining hardware. I compare the performance and power usage between BFL SC ASIC vs FPGA vs GPU (Nvideo GTX 560 Ti and AMD ATI Radeon HD 8950) vs CPU (Intel ...

http://virtualmining.counvateltowndaf.cf